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The Family Tree of Maharajah Luisong Tagean May 17, 2011

Posted by servantisrael in History.
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ROYAL KINGDOM OF MAHARLIKHAN

 

NEW CALLED PHILIPPINES

 

Compilations and Research, Harnessed by

Different Conduits of

 

THE ROYAL MAHARLIKHANS PRIESTHOOD

 

HISTORY

 

PHILIPPINE COLONIZATION BY SPAIN

INTRODUCTION

In 1478, Moslems from the Malayan Peninsula crossed the Malacca Strait and conquered Java, the capital of Madjapahit Empire. Subsequently, the Malay/ Srivijaya/ Madjapahit disintegrated.  In its place, a Moslem religious government was established inaugurating the reign of Sultanates.

A family of MAHARAJAHS AND RAJAHS, TAGEAN, was then ruling the Madjapahit Empire. They retreated and consolidated their position in a group of 7,169 islands, known as the MAHARLIKA (now Philippines) away from the oncoming Moslems. Being a descendant of royal Malayan blood, the Tagean family had its share of power, authority and riches from the collected taxes during its 900 Year rule in the empire, and even two millennia earlier when there was commerce with King Solomon of Israel.

The Maharajah and his sons, the rajahs, ruled the Maharlika using their own laws, the CODE OF KALANTIAW. The Maharlika was a very rich and flourishing country. By the early sixteenth century, the ruling maharajah, Luisong Tagean, had 720,000 metric tons of gold that he kept in present day Kota Kinabalu, Sabah or North Borneo. At that time, Sabah was part of the Maharlika.

The Family Tree of Maharajah Luisong Tagean:

MAHARAJAH LUISONG TAGEAN. He resided in the Lamayan District, now known as Malacañang. He was married to Margaret Acuña Macleod.

His sons were:

 Rajah Lapulapu Tagean.  He ruled Mactan.

 Rajah Soliman Tagean.  He ruled Manila and its suburbs, i.e. Rizal, Cavite,

Batangas, Laguna and the Karilaya Province, now Quezon.  He married

Princess Dayang-dayang Kiram. Later, he married Mary Anne Dent. Mary’s

Father, Alfred Dent was a British Lord and London merchant. He was a co-owner

of the Royal British North Borneo Company.

LUISONG TAEGAN’S GRANDSON WERE :

 Rajah Lakandula Tagean. He ruled Tondo.

Rajah Soliman Tagean. He ruled Eastern Quezon, Mauban, Sampaloc and Lukban.

He was married to the daughter of the sixth Sultan of Brunei, Abdul Kahar.

Rajah Baginda Tagean – He ruled Bohol.

Rajah Kabingsuran Tagean – He ruled Southern Mindanao

Rajah Kolambo Tagean – He ruled Cebu.

Rajah Sikatuna Tagean – He ruled a part of Bohol.

Prince Lacan Acuna Macleod Tagean – Son of Rajah Soliman, he was adopted by his Grandmother, Margaret Macleod Tagean. Born during the Spanish colonial Rule on December 17, 1686, he changed his surname to TALLANO so he could easily pursue his revolutionary activities against the colonizers.  In 1726, at the age of 40, he married Princess Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod of Austria. In 1761, he sought the help of the British against the Spaniards. Later He married Lamayan Bowan. He lived for a 178 years. He begot a son…

Prince Julian Macleod Tagean-Tallano – He was married to Princess Aminah Kiram of  Sultanate of Sulu. He died in 1898. He begot a son…

Don Esteban Benitez Tallano – He died in the Vatican in Rome in 1939. He begot a son …

Don Bonito Acuña Tallano – He died during the Japanese occupation of Maharlika. He begot a son…

Prince Julian Morden Tallano – He is presently alive.


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Comments»

1. Arnold Ortiz - September 8, 2011

what a great nation of this country its pecfect to live in . Can Prince Julian Morden Tallano claim his authority of this nation .

makcris - November 24, 2012

To the 2nd of the last commenter there, who says about ala and slavery, you know nothing…. So shot up!!! I know that history already when I was in elemtary, raha solaiman and some… You know that’s the way of the lord God letting the spaniards won the war or fight, those royal once before had lost thier throne already… And read the history the one who slave the filipino before are the raha, sultan and dato not the spanish!!!… To the remaining of the royal tribe they lost thier power because thier slave had been given freedom by the spanish or the church!!! Now tell me whose the bad one? All the angle of history about my own country I know it!!!… Thanks to christianism our eyes had been open to the real God that gives freedom to the timawa or slave… Not like your fake prophet muhamad, prentended to be one of the prophet, look all prophet show miracle and has an eye witnesses, muhamad ahow nothing!! his fake! I read the koran already cover to cover and knows al about the history of muhamad, even a seven year old baby will notice it that muhamad is fake!!! pretended to be a prophet and use the religion, but the real intention is to be a ruler hahaha!!! Muslim cant you noticed it??? Read history guys open up your eyes and minds

HRH. Carpenter Arpa-V - February 10, 2013

His Highness thinks you are a fool. It was said by the holy prophet that, “that they made it looked like they crucified him (Jesus)m but they did not). In 1947, the accidental discovery of the gospel of Judas Escariot, wherein the latter had written that he was to be the one crucified and hang later to make it look like a suicide. The holy prop[het Mohammad referred to Jesus as the Honored Saint. Jesus’ coffin to this day is in Kaynmar,m Kashmir, Northern india and is referred to as “the tomb of the Honored Saint”. Muslims revere it with daily prayers as the do with others tombs: Noah, Moses, and other prophets. The Monastery in India have a record from 2,000 yrs ago of a middle eastern man name Joseph, the latter in the record book that Muslims refer to a “Issa” (Jesus) in the Holy Kor’an. You present yourselk in your comments as thou you are in a religion-competition and undermining Islam and other religion as thou yours is the only bonafide true religion. Jesus himself said the he did not come to give us Bliss, but to sow sorrow and that a man’ s greatest enemy is ones family. This was so, to instill in us to not rely on others for our own self development and/or progress. With so many prophets over the centuries and with their adherents’ man-made religions, it was only to Prophet Mohammad that Allah stated that, “Mohammad, I have given unto you, the same religion had given the Prophets before you, and the is the religion of Goodness, in which shall you call, Al-Islam”. May Allah enlighten you, and all.

Sharif Paduka Agong Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V - January 15, 2013

Perhaps His Highness just may have political authority in the long run over the country, considering that the Court case was judged final and executor y on Jan. 9, 1976 in favor of the said land owners and heirs in interest.. Also, may not cause the said case is indefinitely pending Resolution so to be consistent with the Torren’s System wherein both parties in court have substantiated land title documents as by the same Torren’s System. Thou the court decision on the case was in favor of said owners that shall be reflected in the Resolution, all individual land titles shall inherently be null and voided. If its in favor of the Govt, the said owners’ rights shall be grossly violated. Either way, the credence of the Torren’s System and the law of Torren Title(legalizing all Titles of land) will be null and voided, affecting the land Titles over the whole world wherein the Torren’s Sysytem are its legal basis. The Resolution at court should be pending indefinetly and forever so to protect all parties under this said System. Insofar as the Kingdom’s history, there are some true and accurate accounts of it with some inconsistencies, such as; the incoming muslims were the King Luisong’s sons who reigned at respective regions far reaching Hawaii. one son wasLapuLapu a Governor of Sempurna in the Title as Panglima Ege who even had a proper name. These sons and other kinships were already Muslims under a Hindu State Religion that caused the death of the Majapahit Emperor while visiting Sulu. the Philippines was then part of India’s Sattellite Empire referred to as the Sri Vigaya Empire under the Suzerainty of the Majapahit Emperor-Maharaja Pamarwasa, The latter’s daughter-Parmusuli Eskander being married to an Arab Muslim Zein Ul-Abidin, the latter being a Sri Vigayan ruler in Seri or present day Brunei. These kinship reverted their Kingdom into strings of Sultanates because they were already Muslims. The many loyal Sri Vigayans frm all over the said Kingdom compiled themselves in the territory of the converted Christian Raja-Humabon, Lapulapu’s brother with Raja Sulayman; and acclaimed their region as the present day Visayas. Reason why Lapulapu came and slained the Spanish Magellan. Then Lapulapu relocated Muslims out of the Visayas into Mindanao and Sulu aslike into Manila. These changed after Christianity took a foot hold later into Luzon. These territory’s Ruler were all Kinships, Why do you think the name Bolkiah is use by the present day Sultan of Brunei and as its 4th Sultan-Hasan Bolkiah who had political dominion throughout all regions including manila. And subsequent Brunie Sultan UlRijal the 5th to the 7th Brunei Sultan, one of them name after. Other present heirs in interest are the present Bouno family in Yogyakarta-ndonesia, Zain Ul-Abidin of Malaysia, Arpa-Taup of Mindanao and Teves or any with a –Eves of the Visayas to name some. However, it hard to believe that a Kiram ever existed in the 9th to the 12th Century because my forefather reigning name as the 1835 Sulu Sultan was Jamalul Kiram-I whose proper name was Muwalil Wasit who married Mahandun the niece pf Brunei Sultan Nassiruddin. He was the very first and only Kiram in our geneology. Anyone using the name in later years may be a usurper because Sultan Kiram-I only had one child-Sultan Pulalun and the latter was then childless. Reason why he proclaimed his nephew Maharaja Adinda (Prince heir-apparent) Taup(my Grandfather’s Father) in 1859. Jamalul Alam (Agdam) who presented himself a Sulu Sultan in 1862 was a usurper whose descendants to this day took on the name, Kiram who filled in the 1957 claim for proprietary rights over North Borneo-sabah although the 1936 Sultan Kiram was childless and controversy erupted for the next 21 years till 1957 of who was to receive the yearly Lease of Sabah. Visit my site: http://www.royalsultanate.weebly.com and see Resolution.

2. jurgen g. cabasal - December 8, 2011

i want to help and advocate…

3. Ernesto Atup - December 11, 2011

We have to recover our past.

4. renato "bobot" cabasal - March 16, 2012

it is the factual and real history of the philippine islands which is known as the MAHARLIKA ISLANDS, which the oppressors, tyrant colonizers, the manipulators, khazarian jews who stole the judean heritage, the rothchilds bankers and their controlled banks entire the world. who wanted to steal the gold bullion of the royal family, destroy and cut off our heritage, insinuated falsehood into the mind and soull of my beloved oppressed “maharlikan” filipino people, now experiencing diaspora, chaos, crime, poverty, anarchy. Oh! ALMIGHTY ALLAH! WHEN WILL YOUR PEOPLE FREE THEM FROM THOSE BONDAGE OF SLAVERY

lari - June 9, 2012

this is a hoax…c’mon…the name tagean or tallano is not even mentioned in the important documentary sources of Philippine history…keep dreaming anyway.

HRH. Carpenter Arpa-V - February 10, 2013

My son, you should know that not all in history are truth. A country’s history is always based on the conqueror’s historical story. Pre-colonization history is always intentionally unrecorded history in order to hide the truth. recorded history may be true, however, tradition/heritage may be truer, cause it has been pass-down generation to generation.

5. lari - June 9, 2012

this is a hoax…tagean or tallano surname is not even mentioned in any important documentary sources of Philippine history…c’mon… you are twisting the history of this nation…

lari - June 9, 2012

you are talking about royal family, gold bullion, legal claims,and new world order…and claiming that the Philippines is owned by a certain tagean or tallano with such fancy royal title and unverified lineage? when the Philippines became a democracy, all monarchical institutions were supplanted by democratic institutions. what were left to the petty monarchies of the olden days were their personal properties and their estates. there is no way that anyone who claims to be a descendant of this and that petty monarchy could claim ownership of the whole nation as his personal property otherwise this nation would no longer owe its sovereignty to the people but to a single person who would effectively impose his sovereignty over all governmental and state machinery being the sole owner of the Philippine territory. in the first place what the tagean / tallano proponents call Kingdom of Maharlika has never existed in history.

6. eulan roofbuilder - June 13, 2012

hope maharlika will return to tagean-tallano and rule it very good… and if that time comes, hope they will be transparent to every family that lives in beloved MAHARLIKA

7. Benedicto - June 13, 2012

By Allah’s grace, Maharlika Islands will be back to its rightful vicegerents — when the Muslims earns the pleasure of Allah and not these “Muslims” of today who are fond of money and power and are ready to kill anybody to keep it. The model of our Prophet (peace be upon him) never lust for power or wealth for he knows, these are all maddening confusion made by Satan. It never help us in Barzakh or after it. Having power and wealth do not make us any happier than the needy and much difficult to account.

By getting back to our senses, we may earn the pleasure of Allah!

8. Uɐɹpouƃ Pnʇıʞ - June 15, 2012

Why aren’t there any Tallano HEro??

9. Uɐɹpouƃ Pnʇıʞ - June 15, 2012

If Maharlika di exist then Why only LApu lapu of TAgean origin had an Army that defended only MActan?? where are the Rest of the Tagean Rajahs?? why didn’t they defended their MAHARLika land??

Bambie - September 7, 2014

This is a good question.. Even i, grew up that only Lapulapu knew a Hero of the Philippines.

10. jeniffer b. alangan - August 12, 2012

I salute to prince Julian Morden Tagean Tallano his vission and mission to our country phils. and I am thankful to god for the he was a man choosen and being instrument for keeping the treasures of the phils. I do believe that your dreams will comes true. From: Jeniffer B. Alangan of Palo Leyte

nanaymiriam - August 16, 2012

bakit nga naman ngayon lang lumabas yan,pano na yong naunang kasaysayan na wala man lang nabanggit tallano o kung ano pang may kaugnayan sa kanila

11. patrimony cause - August 27, 2012

Ang katotohanan ay mauungkat lamang magmula sa sa tunay na kasaysayan ng ating bayan. ang kaalaman at kalinangang na kinagisnan ng pangkasalukuyang henerasyon ay hango sa mga literatura at historya na gawa at may impluwensya ng mga banyaga, nakalulungkot na maraming aspeto ng ating historya ay nangawala, o di kaya’s pilit ikinubli, sa pasalinsalin ng mga mananakop sa loob ng ilang mga siglo. kanya naman walang sariling pagunawa sa patrimonya at malalim na pagtunghay sa kasaysayan ng bayang Maharlika. Panahon na upang gunitain, buhayin at palaganapin ang kamalayang angkop para sa mga Pilipino, sang-ayon sa pananaliksik ng mga Pilipino at hango sa kamalayan at kasaysayang tatak Pilipino.

12. Boljak - September 14, 2012

It’s easy to prove all these. I’m pretty sure they have better written records in Austria in the olden days and if they dig deep enough they can find the genealogy and marriage of Princess Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod and most likely her descendants as well.

13. Roberto bias can - October 20, 2012

This is bullshit

14. makcris - November 24, 2012

To the 2nd of the last commenter there who tells about ala and slavery, you know nothing at all so shot up!!! I know that history already when I was in elemtary, raha solaiman and some… You know that’s the way of the lord God letting the spaniards won the war or fight. those royal once before had lost their throne already… And read the history the one who slave the filipino before are the raha, sultan and dato not the spaniards!!!… To the remaining of the royal tribe they lost their power because their slaves had been given freedom by the spanish or the church!!! Now tell me whose the bad one? All the history angle about my own country I know it!!!… Thanks to christianism our eyes had been open to the real God that gives freedom to the timawa or slave… Not like your fake prophet muhamad, prentended to be one of the prophet, look all prophet showed miracles and has an eye of witnesses. but muhamad has nothing!! his fake! I read the koran already cover to cover and knows all about the history of muhamad, even a seven years old baby will notice or understand it that muhamad is fake!!! pretended to be a prophet and use the religion. but his real intention is to be a ruler!! hahaha!!! Muslim cant you noticed it??? Read history guys open up your eyes and minds

Maharlika - May 30, 2013

Makcris, you’ve been wondering around in the desert of lies. You’re one of those people who are trying to rewrite history with lies to cover up the shame and the barbaric things they did to my people and others. Read history (not from comic books) and do some research. The lies obviously had corrupted your mind. It’s about time you close your eyes from the darkness around you and you will see the light of truth inside you.

15. apeng daldal - March 4, 2013

i can not understand how Rajah Soliman had ever been married to Mary Anne Dent when they lived about at least 350 years apart. Alfred dent lived during the 1850′s onwards and so Mary Ann lived a bit later on since she was his daughter. She could not have lived earlier than his father nor her grandfather and even if she had, they could not have been at least 300 years apart. Still, she would not have had opportunity to meet Rajah Soliman in time. no way!! Please expound.

Miss Page - April 17, 2014

basically as per statement above…they had mentioned 2 Rajah Soliman..the once that was married by Mary Ann was already a grandson.

16. historyisfact - July 20, 2013

There story contradicts history and mailed is defendant not Malay or Spanish by origin I think it’s either Scottish or Irish and furthermore the kingdoms of Luzon isn’t connected in anyway to the visual kingdoms or the sultanas of Mindanao… tagean tallano estate was made by the Marcos to steal from the Filipinos.

17. historyisfact - July 20, 2013

ahhh religion the pestilence of this earth Muslim believing in sharing and the paedophile Muhammad, the greedy Jews who think the holocaust happened and Christians.. Lol christians

18. Jovan - July 23, 2013

Sa hinaba-haba ng prusisyon kung saan nagsimula doon din magtatapos. Kung sa simbahan nagsimula ang prusisyon magbabalik muli sa simbahan…

19. Kriselle P. - August 19, 2013

Kung ang history na sinasabi nila ay sila raw ang nagmamayari ng pilipinas bago pa ito masanakop at noo’y dahan dahang naging pagaari ng espanya sa pamamagitan ng pagkamkam sa mga lupain, at nung spanish-american war, unti unti ng natatalo ang espanya sa america nagkaroon sila ng kasunduaan at tinawag na treaty of paris na binayaran ng (america) ang espanya para makuha ang pilipinas, at ang umano’y nagbayad raw ay si Don Esteban Benitez Tagea- Tallano ng $20,000,000.00 para dito.
Pwede nating ipagpalagay at sabihin na siya ang mayari hangang sa kasalukuyan kung nabubuhay pa siya at ayon din sa batas kung siya ay patay na ang pwedeng maging tagapagmana nya lang ay ang kanyang(immidiate heir) o ang mga sumusunod.
(kung buhay pa ang kanyang MAGULANG at wala na syang pamilya) (kung may ASAWA siya o kaya may ANAK siya o APO sa anak niya) at (kung wala naman siyang PAMILYA o MAGULANG kailangang may kasulatan na magsasaad kung sino ang tagapagmana niya) o (last will of testament) kung kanino man niya nais ipamana at kung wala pa din sa nabanggit ang (GOBYERNO na ang magmamayari ng lahat lahat ng kanyang ari-arian) kaya diyan sa issue na yan walang nasabing (last wiill of testament) ang nagmamayari at wala din siyang immediate heir o tagapagmana kaya ngayon sa gobyerno na ito at wala ng magagawa kung kamag anak sila eh hindi naman sa kanila ipinamana.

now it belongs to the state and its people, just easy as that!!

20. Daven Frias - October 27, 2013

Is there a DNA test result that will confirm his blood relationship with Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei, the closest known living relative of Rajah Soliman of Manila ? Is there a verifiable or existing document of the marriages of members of the so called royal family of Maharlika to spanish mestizo Margaret Acuna and to The Austrian Princess ? The age of 178 years old in 17th and 18th Centuries can be entered in the Guiness of World Records. I find this part of the Philippine history very interesting and verification is the first step if the subject presented is either factual or just a fable.

Bambie - September 7, 2014

This is indeed a question that needs a justifiable answer.

21. Daven Frias - October 27, 2013

I still have several questions to the legitimacy of the claimant to the Maharlikan Throne as well as to the truthfulness of tons of gold as inheritance to the Maharlikans .If the subjects presented are indeed factual and true I won’t hesitate to be the first to promote and actively support a restoration movement of a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy , The Maharajate of Maharlika ( The Great Kingdom of Maharlika ) . The Majarajah or Great King will be the Constitutional and Ceremonial Head of the State . The Prime Minister chosen from the House of Commons or Representatives will be the Head of the Government . The House of Lords or the Senate will legislate royal laws and will counsel the Great King of royal decrees. It calls for a constitutional ammendment to restructure the form of government. No more presidential election . It may minimize corruption and may boost tourism . If we have indeed the tons of gold, let us not lose time to enhance our nation and our country .

22. Shane - February 26, 2014

makcris knows nothing about history. even a bit of it. i dont want to curse someone or say something bad but you deserve this. I’m sorry but you are the stupidest “historian.” Retarded!

23. Mr.jimmy - March 18, 2014

Sana maumpisahan na makuha ni prince Julian m Tallano ang maharlika pera pa na sila ang nagmamayari ng buong maharlika ay may ginto pa na nagkakahalaga ng 640,000 metric tons of gold at malamang ito ang ipangapital para sa programang totoong kaunlaran at matiwasay na pamumuhay ng bawat filipino na sa ngayon nagkakahalaga iyan ng trillion trillion of USDOLLAR at para sa ganon madalas na ang sandatahang layas ng filipinas at kaming lahat na nagpapamotsatsu na mga OFW ay mapauwi na sa Mahal na maharlika !panahon na na ang bawat filipino ay makamit nya na ! Ang marangyang pamumuhay at tangilain ng buong mundo na ang filipino/filipinas ang syang makapangyarihan at mataas na antas ikumpara sa kanila!MABUHAY ANG TALLANO’S CLAN”ANG TALA STATE’

24. seven sultans - May 26, 2014

wonderful issues altogether, you just won a brand new
reader. What would you recommend in regards to your post that you simply made a few days in the past?
Any sure?

25. ferdie - August 12, 2014

Friday, February 03, 2012
Posted by: Street Strategist
Manila Bulletin: The Untold Origin

“The Untold History”

Here are some of my recent findings, not as a professional historian, but as a curious individual.

These findings are based on commercial and legal documents whose original purposes were for documentation as required by law and contracts.

Yet, such documents are a very important source of history.

After all, history is sourced from documents, not the other way around.

Now, let us proceed to the untold history.

Here is what history books do not tell us. This origin is taken from a document. Remember, documents were not written for history. There were encoded and entered as transactions in the ordinary course of business on a day to day basis. Unlike history, documents do not make up angles or perspectives or interpretations.

One document, a certificate of land title, numbered OCT-01-4 which was created formally in 1764 (yes, it’s that old), was preserved, and re-constituted, and re-created and re-registered whenever the land registration laws changed over the years, contains certain annotations at the back.

One such annotation is relevant to: Manilal Bulletin:

This annotation is dated November 13, 1902, annotation number EDC-096S-1900. The date of the real estate mortgade is February 3, 1902, for the amount of P1.5 millions with Banco-Filipino-Espanol (now called BPI).

EDC-096
S-1900
Real Estate Mortgage executed by Don Esteban Benitez Tallano secured by 250 hectares of commercial lot in Centro Intramuros, in favor of Banco Filipino-Español for the sum of P 1,500,000.00. The said sum received by Messrs. H.G. Farris and Carson Taylor for the establishment of Manila Daily Bulletin.
Date of the Document: February 3, 1902
(Sgd) H.K. SLEEPERLand Registration Officer
November 13, 1902

What does the above transactional annotation document in the land title OCT-01-4 tell us?

It tells us what history books have failed to capture.

1. There is a title Oct-01-4.

2. The title has annotations.

3. One of such annotations refers to a real estate mortgage.

4. The land involved is 250 hectares of commercial lot in Centro Intramuros

5. The land is owned by Don Esteban Benitez Tallano (heirs of Luisong Tagean)

6. The money borrowes in P1.5 million.

7. The sum was received by H G Farris and Carson Taylor.

8. The purpose of the loan was to establish Manila Daily Bulletin (now Manila Bulletin). (apparently to expand the originally a shipping bulletin into a full fledged newspaper)

9. The annotation was signed by HK Sleeper, the land registration officer at the time.

10.. The date of the real estate mortgage was Feb 3, 1902.

As you have noticed, the annotations and the history accounts dovetail in agreement.

This is what the history books failed to capture, but in reality was documented not by a historian, but by an officer who was doing his work in the ordinary course of business on day to day basis.

And this is a validation, once again, of the existence, the validity, and the authenticity of Torrens Title OCT-01-4 issued in favor of

“Prince Lacan Acuña Tallano Tagean (formerly Tagean Clan), married with Princess Rowena Ma. Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod of Austria, the owner in Fee simple of certain lands, known as HACIENDA FILIPINA”

(email me to get a scanned copy of the title issued by the register of deeds)

Note: The early transcriptions were in Spanish but the government had its translated into English through the efforts of then Solicitor General Felix Makasiar under Pres. Diosdado Macapagal (who later become Chief Justice under Marcos). Therefore, the government itself has consistently recognized the validity and the authenticity of OCT 01-4.

History from original source documents! What a refreshing perspective!


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